During staling, different proportions of water incorporate into the crystalline structure of starch . The lower rates of staling of rye bread compared with wheat bread originate from differences in starch fine structure. According to Mihhalevski et al , the relative crystallinity of starch formed during staling in rye sourdough bread was less and increased more slowly as compared with that in wheat bread. The reasons for the slow crystallization process were suggested to be the different starch structures , protein matrix, water content, and pH as compared with those of wheat bread.
Hearth breads were the forerunners of pan breads. Hearth breads are baked on the oven floor or sole. As a consequence, they range from having an ovate or nearly spherical shape to one approximating a horizontal cylinder. In addition to affecting the shape, the absence of baking pans exposes the entire bread surface to the oven environment. This large, exposed surface area produces the greater crust-to-crumb ratio characteristic of hearth breads. Perhaps, the most famous hearth bread is the French baguette. Many hearth breads are characterized by long fermentation and no antistaling additives.
In recent years, sourdough bread has grown in popularity due to increased consumer demand for bread with pronounced flavor, high nutritional value, healthy properties, prolonged shelf life, and less additives; at last, the traditional aspects of sourdough breads have attracted consumers. Many sourdough breads are produced worldwide, most of them in Europe and Mediterranean countries, others in North America. Sourdough was introduced from Europe to the San Francisco area during the California gold rush and to Alaska and western Canada during the Klondike gold rush. San Francisco sourdough bread is the most famous type currently produced in the United States. In the Mediterranean area, the sourdough baking process generally concerns artisanal bakeries; indeed, the “culture” and skill of sourdough baking have been lost by many bakers, and its use is perpetuated by specialists and enthusiasts, particularly bakeries producing traditional breads. PDO breads , such as Pane di Altamura and Pagnotta del Dittaino , and PGI breads , such as Pan de Cruz de Ciudad Real and Pan de Cea and Pane di Matera, Pane di Genzano, and Coppia Ferrarese , are protected by European regulations and must be leavened using sourdough. In northern Europe, sourdough is employed especially in the baking process of rye flour, for example, in Germany, the Baltic states, and Russia; this is also done in the United States. Because rye flour does not contain gluten proteins, which are responsible for the formation of a net structure in wheat dough, rye dough is not able to retain the CO 2 produced during fermentation. Rye flour mainly contains starch, which can absorb a high amount of water. Bread made with 100% rye flour is usually obtained by sourdough fermentation; the acidity of sourdough inactivates α-amylases, commonly present in rye flour, thus preventing excessive starch degradation, and it promotes solubilization of rye pentosans that enhance the water binding capacity of the dough, allowing the starch to gel and form a matrix during cooking. Therefore, dough acidification is essential to obtain a proper crumb structure and an increase of bread volume. In mixed wheat–rye breads, baker’s yeast can be used for leavening, and if strong wheat is used, an increase in loaf volume can be obtained. Despite its distinctive flavor, taste, and eating quality, sourdough rye bread production is currently diminishing due to the large amount of labor and high cost of production, and most rye breads, especially in the United States, are manufactured using baker’s yeast .
Leavened breads include traditional white pan, variety, hearth and sourdough breads , sweet goods including yeast-leavened doughnuts, and bagels. Rolls are simply smaller-sized products and may be similar to other, larger breads and sweet goods. Leavened breads are characterized by a crumb texture that is light, airy, and porous, yet chewy. One of the primary determinants of this texture is the quantity and quality of gluten protein.
In North America, the use of sourdough as a leavening agent is linked with the arrival of European origin settlers spread around the continent, among others the gold miners during the gold rush in the mid-19th century in the west coast region. In San Francisco, still nowadays, bakeries claim to use sourdough that has been propagated for over 150 years, harboring Kazachstania exigua as the predominant yeast, instead of the brewer’s yeast, while Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis was isolated from San Francisco sourdough .
The antistaling effects of many compounds such as hydrocolloids, modified starches, dextrins and malto-oligosaccharides and other fibres have been extensively reviewed by Fadda et al. . Examples include hydrocolloids such as pectins, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, guar gum, konjac gum, xanthan gums, chitosan; modified starches such as chemically modified tapioca starches; dextrins, and malto-oligosaccharides, including fructans and exopolysaccharides as well as other fibres and a plethora of other lipid- and enzyme-based ingredients.
Download as PDF Set alert About this page Sourdough Breads Pasquale Catzeddu, in Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention , 2011
From: Flour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention, 2011
During the Barbarian migration period in Europe, bread was not the primary food of the Barbarians and industrial bread manufacturing disappeared. The technology of sourdough bread survived in the monasteries until the twelfth century when the profession of baker reappeared in France. After the Middle Ages, the technology of bread made new progress and, especially in northern Europe where breweries were widespread, the barm obtained from beer brewing was identified as a substitute for sourdough in the leavening process.
C.F. Morris, in Encyclopedia of Grain Science , 2004
N. Magan, … M. Arroyo, in Breadmaking , 2012
Since the nineteenth century, baker’s yeast has almost completely replaced sourdough in the leavening of bread. The increased use of baker’s yeast was due to its greater suitability for the requirements of modern baking processes, as a rapid and simple leavening process, and the adaptation to mechanized bread production. In fact, the sourdough baking process is time-consuming and requires a long fermentation time.
Hieroglyphs in early Egypt as well as the analysis of bread from that time demonstrates that bread production certainly used sourdough fermentation. More detailed descriptions of sourdough fermentations were provided in the first century by Pliny the Elder in the Natural History; here, the use of back-slopped, acidified dough as well as the use of yeast from winemaking are described. In early Egypt as well as the Roman Empire, bread was produced at a large, essentially industrial scale. In Europe, sourdough fermentation remained the main process for dough leavening until the use of excess brewer’s yeast became common in the fifteenth century. The dedicated production of yeast for use as leavening agent started in the late nineteenth century and all, but replaced the use of sourdough for production of wheat bread. Nevertheless, sourdough breads continued to play a significant part in the market in much of Europe, particularly in countries where rye bread is common, including Scandinavia, Germany, eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union, as well as in parts of the Middle East.
Semolina from durum wheat , commonly used to make pasta and cous cous, is also used to produce leavened bread in Mediterranean countries. Two-layered flat breads are popular in the Middle East and Arab countries. In southern Italy, semolina is commonly used to produce traditional loaf breads, such as the previously mentioned PDO and PGI breads. Different types of leavened flat breads are produced in Sardinia , an island in the Mediterranean Sea, with Carasau bread—a crispy, flat, thin bread—being the most representative.
The mystery of leavening was uncovered only in recent times. Louis Pasteur, the French renowned microbiologist and chemist gave the definitive explanation of microbial leavening in 1857. Since that time, extensive research on sourdough has been performed and technological improvements and innovations have been achieved. Thus, the aim of this chapter is to give a compiled and renewed overview of the knowledge existing so far on sourdough as well as the emerging challenges for novel applications.
Konstantinos Papadimitriou, … Effie Tsakalidou, in Innovations in Traditional Foods , 2019
Throughout the centuries of human civilization, agriculture has been a fundamental ground of prosperity, and land farming was a sacred occupation. Among cultivated plants, cereals and pseudocereals have played a crucial role in rural life. Indeed, almost all civilizations developed a form of agriculture that was based on the cultivation of one or more cereal crops .
Metabolites present in fermented foods, including dairy , sourdough bread , wine , and beer have been shown to be directly transferred to the human metabolome. Remarkably, while metabolomics of the plant-based fermented food covered in this chapter have been studied to some extent, and shown to be uniquely distinct from these more commonly fermented foods , there has been no documented attempt at determining the fate of these metabolites neither in animal nor in human studies.
Sourdough bread is similar to white hearth bread except for its characteristic sour, acidic flavor and extra chewy texture. Sweet goods, on the other hand, are characterized by rich formulas high in fat and sugar and contain milk solids and eggs. These products are more varied but generally require flours similar to other leavened breads. Products include yeasted doughnuts, cinnamon rolls, coffee cakes, Danish and puff pastries, and French brioche.
In some cases, bakers use sourdough technology without realizing that they are doing so. The use of sponge dough, extended fermentation of a part of the dough after addition of baker’s yeast, is commonly used to improve the quality of wheat bread and soda crackers. If the fermentation time extends to more than 8–12 h, a lactic microbiota invariably develops, resulting in moderate acidification of the dough. The growth of lactic acid bacteria in sponge dough exerts a decisive influence on product quality, but is often not adequately controlled by starter cultures or process parameters. In these cases, minor changes in the recipe or the process can lead to unexpected and entirely undesirable consequences for product quality. Likewise, the practice of overnight soaking of whole grains used in bread recipes to ensure full uptake of water by the grains is commonly associated with lactic fermentation.
By far the most common type of leavened bread in the West is white pan bread made from straight-grade or patent flours of hard spring and winter wheats. White pan breads require high flour water absorption, medium to strong dough mixing strength, extensible gluten, and good fermentation and mixing tolerances. Large loaf volume and fine, smooth crumb grain are desirable. A smaller version of pan bread is the sandwich bun. McDonald’s alone sells over 8 billion sandwich buns per year worldwide, nearly 5 billion in the US. The US portion of sales consumes nearly 200 million kg of flour – ∼1% of all the flour produced in the US. Variety breads are embellished versions of white pan. These breads are prepared using whole-wheat flour and/or as many as a dozen different ancillary ingredients.
Rye sourdough breads have a slower staling rate than wheat breads in general. The starch in these breads crystallizes in different forms than in wheat bread . Complexes containing starch and protein are considered to play an important part in the firming of the bread crumb. The rye proteins cannot form a starch-gluten complex similar to that of wheat protein, and it is impossible for intermolecular disulfide bonds to be formed . Water-extractable arabinoxylans bind water and contribute to the viscosity of rye dough .
Documented production and consumption of sourdough bread can be traced back to several millennia BC . Bread loaf residues have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs and wheat has been found in pits where humans settled more than 8000 years ago . Egyptians were the first who mixed flour and water, left it to ferment and increase in volume, and finally baked it along with fresh dough, producing soft and light breads. Along with this discovery, Egyptians also introduced the use of beer foam in bread-making. They selected the best varieties of wheat flour and adopted innovative tools, such as sieves and mills for bread-making. They also used high-temperature ovens. It was also in Egypt where the Jewish learned the art of baking .
Maurice G. O’Sullivan, in A Handbook for Sensory and Consumer-Driven New Product Development , 2017
Bagels are doughnut-shaped rolls. The word bagel comes from the Austrian–German word bugel , meaning stirrup. Bagels were invented over 300 years ago to honor Jan Sobieski, king of Poland and famed equestrian. Bagel doughs are retarded for up to 20 h and then boiled just prior to baking. A traditional style of bagels requires very chewy texture.
By far, the most common type of leavened bread in the West is white pan bread made from straight-grade or patent flours of hard spring and winter wheats. White pan breads require high flour water absorption, medium to strong dough mixing strength, extensible gluten, and good fermentation and mixing tolerances. Large loaf volume and fine, smooth crumb grains are desirable. A smaller version of pan bread is the sandwich bun. Variety breads are embellished versions of white pan. These breads are prepared using whole-wheat flour and/or as many as a dozen different ancillary ingredients.
Two-layered leavened flat breads are produced in the Middle East, sourdough bread article Arab countries, and Sardinia using sourdough starter and durum wheat flour.
Sourdough breads , although their consumption is lower than that of yeasted breads in developed countries, probably predate the latter products. This review examines the history, microbiology, and nutritional significance of sourdough breads. Outlines of some typical production processes are also provided, but the reader is referred to the sources cited in the Further Reading section for detailed accounts of sourdough bread manufacture.
In Central Europe , people have been consistently producing acidified and leavened bread for over 5000 years. An archeological finding of this type of bread, dating from 3600 BC, has been recently excavated near Bern, in Switzerland , while excavations in Austria and Quedlinburg, Germany revealed similar findings . It is believed that Greeks living in Marseille introduced sourdough bread in Gaul in the 4th century BC, while it was during the Middle Ages and only in the cities, where the profession of the baker appeared .
Sourdoughs are so called because the bread is leavened with a mixture of yeast and lactic acid bacteria. It should be appreciated that a conventional yeast leaven will always contain some lactic acid bacteria, and that there will be a contribution to the final flavor that is attributable to them, but this will be minor and certainly will not result in a significant acid taste in the final bread. In a true sourdough, however, the contribution of the lactic acid bacteria will always be detectable, at least to the experienced palate, and quite often, the acidity is sufficient to be noticeable to the normal consumer. The sourdough way of making bread is of great antiquity, and many experts would agree that it is almost certainly the oldest way of leavening doughs, as a sour leaven will arise naturally from organisms already present in the flour if a mixture of flour and water is left in a warm place for a few hours; if this is used to inoculate a fresh flour/water mixture , which is then allowed to ferment and a portion of it is used to inoculate a third portion of dough, and so forth, there will be a gradual evolution of a compatible mixture of yeast and Lactobacillus species. This type of continuing re-inoculation has much in common with maintaining liquid inocula by the process sometimes referred to as ‘backslopping.’ From the first mixing of flour and water, the developed sour ferment can be used to leaven a batch of bread dough, but as the sour is developed through succeeding generations, its quality and the consistency with which it leavens bread dough will improve, and the resulting bread will be more uniform and predictable in its quality, other things, such as flour quality, being equal. In some traditions, the sour dough starter is thus maintained for a very long time, possibly centuries, whereas in other practices, the sour starter is begun again every so often.
Figure 4.2 . Loaves of sourdough bread produced in southern Italy.
The origins of bread-making are so ancient that everything said about them must be pure speculation. One of the oldest sourdough breads dates from 3700 BC and was excavated in Switzerland, but the origin of sourdough fermentation likely relates to the origin of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent several thousand years earlier. Sourdough fermentation starts spontaneously if a mixture of flour and water is left in a warm place for a few hours, and satisfactory bread can be made from such a ferment. Sourdough fermentation to obtain porridges or beverages may have been the original process, out of which the production of bread would develop fairly easily. Bread production relied on the use of sourdough as leavening agent for most of human history; the use of baker’s yeast as a leavening agent dates back less than 150 years.
C.F. Morris, in Encyclopedia of Food Grains , 2016
M.G. Gänzle, in Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology , 2014
Wheat and other grains cultivated in the Nile River Valley were used in ancient Egypt to manufacture leavened breads on a large scale—enough to feed thousands of people per day; this is supported by the discovery of desiccated bread and numerous wall pictures of the bread making process in ancient tombs. The ancient Greeks imported wheat grains from Sicily and Egypt, and continuous trading with Egyptians allowed them to become familiar with leavened breads. The Greeks began to bake bread during the night and made remarkable improvements to the technology and baking equipment. The Romans were avid bread eaters; bakers were initially freed slaves who turned into professional bakers, forming corporations that became increasingly important and indispensable to society until the bakers became public officials and, hence, employees of the state.
Pane di Altamura is a traditional PDO bread obtained from remilled durum wheat semolina and sourdough starter. It is produced in a limited area of southern Italy according to the bread making procedure defined by EU regulations .
Kati Katina, … Kaisa Poutanen, in Rye and Health , 2014
Bread is one of the most important products of cereal origin. It has been a staple food worldwide and undoubtedly of great value for human nutrition and economy. It is believed to have originated in prehistoric times, initially produced as unleavened or partially leavened bread, and then as leavened . In the fullness of time, sourdough bread has gained a central role in the diet of peasant societies. It has been preferred over unleavened cereal products, as the sensory and nutritional transformations, which took place through the empirical fermentation, have been appreciated by the rural population .
Hearth breads were the forerunners of pan breads. Hearth breads are baked on the oven floor, or sole. As a consequence, they range from having an ovate or nearly spherical shape to one approximating a horizontal cylinder. In addition to affecting the shape, the absence of baking pans exposes the entire bread surface to the oven environment. This large, exposed surface area produces the greater crust-to-crumb ratio characteristic of hearth breads. Perhaps the most famous hearth bread is the French baguette. Many hearth breads are characterized by long fermentation and no antistaling additives.
In the United States, sourdough bread was vital to the pioneers traveling west in slow-moving wagon parties, with no means of preserving yeast for baking. Sourdough starters are relatively easy to maintain, and if all else failed, another starter could be prepared from flour and water. It was so important a part of the survival kit of the adventurers seeking gold in Alaska and the Yukon in 1898 that they became known as ‘sourdoughs,’ as featured in the poems of Robert Service and the novels of Jack London. In North America, sourdough bread is usually associated with San Francisco, California, where the tradition and practice of sourdough bread production survived in numerous small-craft bakeries in the century after the California gold rush. It reemerged in the 1980s with San Francisco sourdough bread on sale throughout the United States.
Bagels are doughnut-shaped rolls. The word ‘bagel’ comes from the Austrian–German word bugel , meaning stirrup. Bagels were invented over 300 years ago to honor Jan Sobieski, king of Poland and famed equestrian. Bagel doughs are retarded for up to 20 h and then boiled just prior to baking. Retarding refers to a secondary fermentation conducted at low temperature, i.e., by placing the dough under refrigeration. A traditional style of bagels has a very chewy texture, whereas many commercial styles have the texture of pan bread.
Journals & Books Register Sign in Sign in Register Journals & Books Help Sourdough Bread Sourdough bread manufactured with PLA-producing strains has been proved to delay the growth of a few mold species, such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, although the growth of Penicillium roqueforti was only delayed when PLA was used in combination with calcium propionate .
Ancient Greeks adopted the use of sourdough from Egypt about 800 BC . Before 500 BC, bread-making was performed domestically by women, while later it became a matter for professionals. Numerous references in ancient Greek texts contain information about the cereals used, the types of bread, as well as the baking methods and the role of bread in religion. It is documented that bread had a crucial devotional role in ancient Greek Gods’ worship, as it was intended for “pure miracles” or bloodless offerings during religious ceremonies . Later on, the Romans, who mainly consumed roasted or boiled cereals, learned the process of baking and the technique of building bread ovens, and further improved bread-making. Moreover, they introduced regulations about bread manufacture and distribution by bakers originally called pistores, who created the first corporation, named “collegium pistorum” .
Figure 14.2 . An overview of the variation found in the mean data from the ANOVA–partial least squares regression correlation loadings plot for each bread packaging treatment and MAP and was assessed on storage days 1, 5 and 10.
In order to assess the quality changes of samples and whether hedonic attributes as well as flavour and aroma characteristics were affected, 26 untrained panellists were recruited. Each panellist was presented with samples provided for assessment included control and MAP and was assessed on storage days 1, 5 and 10. All samples were assigned with a random three-digit identification code to allow for blind assessment and asked to rate descriptors according to a 10 cm line scale. The list of hedonic descriptors included overall appearance, overall flavour liking, overall acceptability and anchored from extremely dislike or unacceptably to extremely like or acceptable. Additionally the simple descriptors off-aroma, ethanol aroma, fresh aroma, ethanol flavour and astringent taste were also scored and anchored on the line scale from none to extreme . The scoring of these attributes cannot be considered as part of a descriptive profile because they were not scored separately to the sensory acceptance. The inclusion of a descriptive component would have been a lot stronger if a ranking descriptive analysis was undertaken using the same attributes.
Case Study: Use of smart packaging technologies for monitoring and extending the shelf life quality of MAP bread: application of intelligent oxygen sensors and active ethanol emitters .
Fermented dairy is often associated with somewhat misleading claims of improved immune system modulation. While there has been extensive research on the direct impact of probiotic strains from fermented dairy on the immune system , it is difficult to conclude if the effects are really beneficial. One study reported potential anti-inflammatory action of a kimchi-derived Lactobacillus, but under extremely specific conditions that are unlikely to be translatable to human health . Further, a randomized controlled dietary intervention study in health young adults showed no significant impact on immune system biomarkers from short-term kimchi consumption .
The following case study displays a simple storage test for bread samples analysed principally with hedonic analysis and with microbiological assessment in parallel. Total viable counts were carried out in accordance with ISO standards, method 4833:2003. Commercial Ciabatta bread samples were packaged in MAP gas levels consisting of 10% CO 2 and 90% N 2 . Each bread pack contained two Ciabatta loafs and were packaged in high barrier OPA/PE laminate films of 38 μm thickness and stored at room temperature . An optical oxygen sensor was attached to the inside of all bread packs prior to gas flushing and sealing. Further samples were packaged with air to serve as a control. The use of ethanol in low density polyethylene-based sachets containing 3 mL of alcohol gel was also incorporated into a number of packs while an ethanol spray was applied to other samples.
Because of consumer demands for more natural products biopreservation approaches have received much more attention in recent years. Microorganisms are already commonly used in the preparation of sourdough breads . Lactic acid bacteria have been used for centuries as starter cultures in food processing. They are able to produce a wide range of GRAS bioactive molecules including organic acids, fatty acids, and bacteriocins. The anti-mould activity of LABs against moulds have been recently reviewed by Hassan and Bullerman . Some studies have also shown that LAB strains in sourdough breads offer very good protection against a wide range of mould spoilage organisms including P. corylophilum , P. expansum , E. fibuliger , A. niger and F. graminearum . The latter study isolated a novel bacteriocin from Lactobacillus plantarum 21B, which could perhaps be applied to other bakery product systems. The shelf life of sourdough bread was extended by the inclusion of this bacteriocin. At present, nisin is the only bacteriocin legally approved for use as a food additive . Recently, a range of LABs have been screened and some found to produce anti-fungal compounds acetic and phenyllactic acids . Incorporation of LABs as starter cultures allowed a reduction in the concentration of calcium propionate by 50%, while still maintaining a shelf life similar to that of traditional bread containing 0.4% CP . This suggests that LABs may produce useful anti-fungal compounds which could be used to substitute the existing fungistats with a similar level of efficacy.
B.J.B. Wood, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition , 2003
Laura Lavefve, … Franck Carbonero, in Advances in Food and Nutrition Research , 2019
Sourdough bread is similar to white hearth bread except for its characteristic sour, acidic flavor, and extra-chewy texture. Sweet goods, on the other hand, are characterized by rich formulas high in fat and sugar and contain milk solids and eggs. These products are more varied but generally require flours similar to other leavened breads. Products include yeasted doughnuts, cinnamon rolls, coffee cakes, Danish and puff pastries, and French brioche.
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Sourdough Bread sourdough bread article
Doughnuts are of two general types: yeast leavened and cake. The unique characteristics of doughnuts is their traditional ring shape and the method of frying in hot oil. Yeast-leavened doughnuts are similar to bread in that they are made from yeast-fermented doughs.
Because sourdough consists of a spontaneous fermentation process, it can undoubtedly be considered the primordial form of bread leavening. It is believed that the use of sourdough in bread leavening developed in ancient Egypt in approximately 3000 BC and from there spread gradually to Europe, throughout ancient Greece and the Roman Empire until the present.
These authors found that acceptable limits for microbial quality were maintained for 16 days when packaged in air using EEs. Sensory analysis shows that the use of EEs has no negative effect on product quality compared to the ES technique and controls . The addition of ethanol to extend shelf life shows great promise in delaying the onset of inevitable mould growth. The potential for such smart packaging technology like O 2 sensors and EEs in the bread industry cannot be understated .
Doughnuts are of two general types: yeast-leavened and cake. The unique characteristics of doughnuts are their traditional ring shape and the method of frying in hot oil. Yeast-leavened doughnuts are similar to bread in that they are made from yeast-fermented doughs.
Leavened breads include traditional white pan, variety, hearth and sourdough breads , sweet goods including yeast-leavened doughnuts, and bagels. Rolls are simply smaller-sized products and may be similar to other, larger breads and sweet goods. Leavened breads are characterized by a crumb texture that is light, airy, and porous, yet chewy. One of the primary determinants of this texture is the quantity and quality of the gluten protein.
De Vuyst and Neysens found that sourdough breads had improved technological properties , nutritional and sensory properties as well as longer shelf life compared to yeasted breads. Additionally, flours other than wheat or derived from AM-free wheat flours have been proposed in the production of mixed flour breads in order to improve nutritional aspects and bread aging properties . Barley flour, due to a high β-glucan content, has been shown to help in reducing starch crystallisation, thus delaying significantly the staling rate of bread when used at the 20% level, but it increased the firmness of the fresh product . Soy flour used as a replacement for wheat flour at the 40% level resulted in a significant decrease in AP recrystallisation as well as promoted moisture retention during storage, bread article